How to Install Blocksci and Trouble shooting it.

Installing Blocksci

https://citp.github.io/BlockSci/compiling.html

Requirements :

If you don’t have enough memory it won’t install easily and

  • Cmake version should be 3.9
  • GCC and G++ should be 7 version

Complete instruction to install Cmake 3.9, GCC, G++ :

https://gist.github.com/black13/5c951d3073f8f57e9efa8e1a874b25f1

If the official manual didn’t work you could follow the below steps:

  • sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ubuntu-toolchain-r/test -y
  • sudo apt-get update
  • sudo apt install libtool autoconf libboost-filesystem-dev libboost-iostreams-dev
    libboost-serialization-dev libboost-thread-dev libboost-test-dev libssl-dev libjsoncpp-dev
    libcurl4-openssl-dev libjsoncpp-dev libjsonrpccpp-dev libsnappy-dev zlib1g-dev libbz2-dev
    liblz4-dev libzstd-dev libjemalloc-dev libsparsehash-dev python3-dev python3-pip
  • sudo apt-get install g++-7
  • install cmake 3.9 or higher instead of 3.5 (the cmake 3.5 version installed by apt-get install) (or follow this link to remove old version of cmake and get the new version.)
  • sudo update-alternatives –install /usr/bin/gcc gcc /usr/bin/gcc-7 60 –slave /usr/bin/g++ g++ /usr/bin/g++-7
  • git clone https://github.com/citp/BlockSci.git
  • cd BlockSci
  • mkdir release
  • cd release
  • cmake -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Release ..

Install make :

  • sudo make install
  • cd ..
  • sudo -H pip3 install -e blockscipy (this takes around 2 hours)

 

How to write a clean code – 6 Tips

This is a tiny post which talks about writing a clean code for a fresher who is trying hard to get success in the IT Industry.

1) Use the meaningful variable names

example
$elapsed_time_in_days;
$days_since_deletion;

2) Adding comments is one of the good habits. write comments for every code modifications.

3) Code scouting – When picking up the new code from the Internet, Take some time to read it and try to add methods or split the required functionalities.

4) Functions and sub-functions. Make sure functions are doing its job that its meant to do.

5) Testing – Unit testing is very important, testing the functionality and isolation intensively.

6) Final tips are Practice, Practice, Practice.

Goog Luck!

What is Elasticsearch and how it works?

Elasticsearch

Elasticsearch is an open-source, distributed, multi-tenant-capable search engine. The term multi-tenant refers to the architecture in which a single software runs on a server and serve more than one user at the same time.

SQL database managements systems aren’t really designed for full-text searches also they will take around 10 sec to list out the results were as Elastic search will perform a full-text search and return the results within few milliseconds.

Elastic search is based on Lucene,which is a open source full-text search engine library written in Java.

Indexing and Retrieving data :

Indexing :

The act of storing data in Elasticsearch is called indexing. In Elastic search each data was stored in simple JSON document. Data can be stored using HTTP PUT request.

Elasticsearch cluster can contain multiple indices which are similar to the databases in SQL. Each indices may contain multiple types. These types hold multiple documents and each document has multiple fields.

PUT /index/type/Id

Example :

Lets imagine a school record of all students.

Here the Index (Indices) may be Class-11, Class-12

Type will be as Student. Here the each student data was stored with the ID of the particular student. The files stored under this type may contains fields like : Name, Register number, Father Name etc.

eg: PUT Class-11 / Student / 1

Retrieving :

Retrieving a document is easy in elastic search where we can simple execute “HTTP Get” request and specify the address of the document.

GET /index/type/Id

eg: Class-11 / Student / 1

Every feature of Elasticsearch is exposed as a REST API:

Index API: Used to document the index.

Get API: Used to retrieve the document.

Search API: Used to submit your query and get a result.

Put Mapping API: Used to override default choices and define the mapping.

Filtering Queries and Aggregations :

Elasticsearch has a single set of components called queries, which can be mixed and matched in endless combinations.

This single set of components can be used in two contexts:

  1. Filtering Context
  2. Query Context

When used in filtering context, the query is said to be a “non-scoring” or “filtering” query.

When used in a querying context, the query becomes a “scoring” query.

Non-Scoring Query is to filter the data which matches with the given query.

A scoring query calculates how relevant each document is to the query, and assigns it a relevance _score, which is later used to sort matching documents by relevance.

Aggregations :

The query returns a certain subset of documents, and the aggregation operates on those documents.

How to Secure Your Social Media Accounts

According to a recent study it was found that we are spending approximately 2 hours in social media every day. The most popular social media platforms have billions of users, and the number keeps getting bigger every year.

Previously the social media platform was considered as a medium to get connected with other people. Now enterprises see them as a valid advertising tools. We can see most android applications are using major social media accounts to validate user identity.

Here are some tips for keeping your accounts secure:

Personal Accounts :

  1. Close your accounts that you’re not using. Hackers can leverage these forgotten account and access other accounts linked to it, like your email,mobile number etc.
  1. Before signing in to any application via your social media login, kindly check if this type of access is necessary.
  1. Please change your password often. And make sure it is somewhat complex or unique.
  1. Keep your mobile app updated. Latest versions with updated security features may protect you from the newest known threats.
  1. If any links or mails seems to be spam kindly report the account as spam. If enough people take the same action, networking service can remove the account.
  1. Use unique email (not your personal email) for all social media account. If possible, create a whole new email specifically for social media accounts so that if you are compromised, the hackers won’t have access to any valuable information.

    Corporate Accounts :

    Now-a-days social media forms the better marketing place for enterprises. They use company’s social media to promote their own brand, gain followers, or even spread a specific message.

  1. Monitor your social media regularly.
  1. Limit access to only the necessary people.
  1. Make sure you won’t share any confidential details in the social media pages.
  1. Always be aware aware of the latest security solutions.
  1. Change your password frequently.

Things to know about 5G Network

5G Network:

5G simply stands for fifth generation and refers to the next and newest mobile wireless standard based on the IEEE 802.11ac standard of broadband technology. The next (5th) generation  wireless network will address the evolution beyond mobile internet to massive IoT (Internet of Things)in 2020. Achieving the 5G vision will require new technology innovations that deliver unparalleled levels of scalability, capability and efficiency.

Specifications:

    • Up to 10 Gbps data rate  – > 10 to 100x improvement over 4G and 4.5G networks
    • 1 millisecond latency
    • 1000x bandwidth per unit area
    • Up to 100x number of connected devices per unit area (compared with 4G LTE)
    • 99.999% availability
    • 100% coverage
    • 90% reduction in network energy usage
    • Up to 10-year battery life for low power IoT devices

5G networks expand broadband wireless services beyond mobile Internet to IoT and critical communications segments.Current 4G mobile standards have the potential to provide 100s of Mbps. 5G offers to take that into multi-gigabits per second. It will have faster download speeds and the ability to run more complex mobile Internet apps.

It’s not just about speed in network connection either 5G is seen as the underlying technology allowing self-driving cars to talk to each other, or for people to wirelessly stream super high-definition virtual reality content into their headsets.

Features :

Millimeter wave:

All cellular networks use spectrum in lower frequency bands like 700 megahertz. The high speed 5G network uses a high frequency spectrum for which the millimeter wave range falls between 24 gigahertz and 100 gigahertz.

Latency:

Latency is the response time between a click action and its response from the network. In current networks the lag time may be around 20 milliseconds. With 5G that latency gets reduced to 1 millisecond.

Carrier aggregation:

Wireless carriers can take different bands of radio frequencies and bind them together. They can choose the speediest and least congested Carrier.

Unlicensed spectrum:

Currently our networks using licensed spectrum but in 5G it will use unlicensed spectrum so that they can maintain enough coverage. This can increase the access network capacity and benefit users’ wireless experience.

Network slicing:

In 5G a single physical network will be sliced into multiple virtual networks that can support different devices. Same tower can offer low power connection as well as faster,low-latency connection at the same time.

5G in India:

Airtel and Huawei have successfully conducted India’s first 5G network trial. India plans to roll out 5G services for consumers by 2020.

Before the 5G network get launched in India, many smart-phones have hit the market with the feature to support a 5G Sim.

1.Apple iPhone 8
2.Samsung Galaxy Note8
3.Nokia 9
4.Google Pixel 2 / Pixel XL 2
5.Samsung Galaxy S9 / Galaxy S9+
6.LG G7
7.HTC U12
8.Xiaomi Mi 7
9.Huawei P11 / P11 Plus
10.OnePlus 6

How Will Artificial Intelligence Change The Future?

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is taking root in our everyday lives. We’re still a few years away from having robots at our beck and call, but AI has already had a profound impact in more subtle ways.

In 1950 Alan Turing, British WWII coder, is one of the first people to come up with the idea of machines that think. He even created the Turing test, which is still used today, as a benchmark to determine a machine’s ability to “think” like a human.

Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science that aims to create intelligent machines. It has become an essential part of the technology industry. Instead of writing millions of lines of code to anticipate every situation, these new applications ingest vast amounts of data, recognize patterns, and “learn” from them, much as the human brain does.

The term is frequently applied to the project of developing systems endowed with the intellectual processes characteristic of humans, such as the ability to reason, discover meaning, generalize or learn from past experience.

Artificial intelligence can be understood as a set of tools and programs that makes software “smarter” in a way an outside observer thinks the output is generated by a human.

In the most simplistic terms, AI leverages self-learning systems by using multiple tools like data mining, pattern recognition and natural language processing. It operates similar to how a normal human brain functions during regular tasks like common-sense reasoning, forming an opinion or social behavior.

AI is divided into 3 stages :

First Stage : Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI)
Intelligence restricted to only one functional area.

Second Stage : Artificial General Intelligence (AGI)
It covers more than one field like power of reasoning, problem solving and abstract thinking.

Third Stage : Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI)
AI surpasses human intelligence across all fields.

Examples of AI technology :

Robotic Process Automation : Robots can be programmed to perform high-volume, repeatable tasks normally performed by humans.

Machine Vision : Machine vision captures and analyzes visual information using a camera. They can be programmed to see through walls.

Virtual Personal Assistants : There are some digital apps such as google map which can answer your question as per your requests. Eg: Where’s the nearest restaurant?

Video Games : The system will counteract your moves in certain games which is also an AI.

Smart Cars : Self-driving cars are moving closer and closer to reality; Google’s self-driving car project and Tesla’s “autopilot” feature are two examples that have been in the news lately.

Fraud Detection : The system will be able to spot a fraudulent transaction based on the signs and indications that it learned through the training exercise.

AI Applications :

In Health care : AI is changing health-care now and will in the future. AI is useful in Managing Medical Records, Digital Consultation, Health-care System Analysis and monitor patient’s condition and follow up with treatments.

In Business : In the business world, artificial intelligence is enabling businesses to work smarter and faster, doing more with significantly less. Companies can now use machines algorithms to identify trends and insights and make faster decisions which helps them to be competitive in real-time.

In Education : The field of artificial intelligence (AI) is having a positive impact on educational applications. AI can assess students and adapt to their needs, helping them work at their own pace. AI could change where and how students learn.

In finance : By analyzing various data points, machine learning algorithms can detect fraudulent transactions that would go unnoticed by human analysts. They are also being used as Chatbots which conducts a conversation via auditory or textual methods regarding the financial or banking queries.

 

Things you need to know about Ethereum

Ethereum is an open software platform based on blockchain technology that enables developers to build and deploy decentralized applications.

Like Bitcoin, Ethereum is a distributed public blockchain network. Although there are some significant technical differences between the two, the most important distinction to note is that Bitcoin and Ethereum differ substantially in purpose and capability. Bitcoin offers one particular application of blockchain technology, a peer to peer electronic cash system that enables online Bitcoin payments. While the Bitcoin blockchain is used to track ownership of digital currency (bitcoins), the Ethereum blockchain focuses on running the programming code of any decentralized application.

In the Ethereum blockchain, instead of mining for bitcoin, miners work to earn Ether, a type of crypto token that fuels the network. Beyond a tradeable cryptocurrency, Ether is also used by application developers to pay for transaction fees and services on the Ethereum network.

The thing that makes Ethereum special, as opposed to other cryptocurrency that uses blockchain technology, is that you can actually execute code on the blockchain in this same distributed way. So now, instead of just using the blockchain as a glorified ledger, you can do something like specify conditions under which a person will be paid, and once those conditions are met the money will automatically go to the person without any outside interference. People call these chunks of code ‘smart contracts’.

Smart contracts are self-executing contracts with the terms of the agreement between buyer and seller being directly written into lines of code. The code and the agreements contained therein exist across a distributed, decentralized blockchain network.Smart contracts help you exchange money, property, shares, or anything of value in a transparent, conflict-free way while avoiding the services of a middleman.

Because the rules are so secure and easy to follow, even simple devices like phones or locks can be programmed to obey what everyone has agreed to. And the way of doing this is strong enough that attackers or malfunctioning computers can’t break the rules that have been set up. So people can feel secure using Ethereum for billions of dollars, controlling ownership of their cars and houses, or other valuable things. But if there’s a situation where you want to keep track of something, and it would be a problem if someone could hack or manipulate the results, it’s a good bet that Ethereum can help! The results will look like regular websites or mobile apps, but will be completely uncheatable.  As long as it’s built right, not even the person who makes the app will have the power to break the rules they agreed to.

Proof of work :

Proof of work is a core component in the verification and generation process (mining) of Bitcoin and other alternative cryptocurrencies. It functions as a process to show that work or effort has been expended to achieve a desired set of data.Bitcoin and other cryptocurrency uses the Hash Cash function as its proof of work. Producing this proof of work involves finding valid solutions to complex mathematical problems through a series of random trial and error (brute-force) attempts using computational power.Proof-of-Work happens through miners trying to solve exceptionally difficult math problems. Finding a solution is basically a guessing game, but checking if a solution is correct is easy.

The fact that you need a serious amount of computing power, more than the average person could afford, or would even be able to work with, means the mining community is getting smaller and more exclusive. This goes against the idea of decentralization, and could potentially lead to a 51% attack. A 51% attack is when a miner, or more likely a mining pool, controls 51% of the network’s computational power. With that ability, they could invalidate valid transactions and double spend funds.That’s where PoS could really help.

Proof of Stake:

PoS happens by a miner putting up a stake, or locking up an amount of their coins, to verify a block of transactions. The cryptographic calculations in PoS are much simpler for computers to solve: you only need to prove you own a certain percentage of all coins available in a given currency. For example, if you somehow owned 2% of all Ether (ETH), you’d be able to mine 2% of all transactions across Ethereum.

Even if someone owned 51% of a digital currency, it would not be in their interest to attack something in which they have a majority share. According to game theory, those with a larger stake in a cryptocurrency should want to maintain a secure network. Any attack would only serve to destabilize the digital currency, diminishing the value of their stake.PoS would be a more fair system than PoW, as technically anyone could become a miner.

PoS offers a linear scale regarding the percentage of blocks a miner could confirm, since it’s based on that person’s stake in the cryptocurrency.

Tutorial on Ether Mining:

You can refer the below videos to gain a knowledge on ethermining.

  1. How to Mine Ether on Your PC

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K3AVeIJPQUc

  1. How To Mine Ethereum with (Nvidia or AMD) in Windows 10

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C4796i0Xt38